Diggaduh. "1972: An 8 Year Old's Olympic Memories." Diggapedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.
An image of and quote from ABC News reporter Jim McKay immediately following the Munich massacre. He had been reporting live for 14
hours straight without a break and made this solemn statement on the air after learning of the failed rescue attempt and that all of the
hostages were dead. For many people in the United States, this live broadcast is how they learned about the tragedy.
Forgrave, Reid. "Munich Still Shocks, 40 Years Later." Fox Sports. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.
This website contains stories of personal experiences during the tragedy including: American Olympian Mark Spitz who was at the Munich
games, Shaul Ladany, an Israeli athlete who managed to escape the terrorist attack in Munich, and Barbara Berger, a relative of one of the
slain Israeli athletes.
German History in Documents and Images. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
Two images of the Olympic Stadium in Munich, Germany were used from this website. The first shows the stadium fill with spectators for
the Opening Ceremony on August 26, 1972 and the other an overview of the Olympic venue as it appeared during the 1972 Olympics.
Jspace Staff, ed. “Faces of a Crisis: Declassified Archives Show Incompetencies in Munich Massacre.” Jspace. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2014.
There are four declassified documents with correspondence between the Israeli and German governments on this website dealing with the
aftermath of the Munich Massacre.
LifeTime.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2014. <http://life.time.com/history/munich-massacre-1972-olympics-photos/>.
Images of the of the Black September terrorists out on on the balcony were used on both the Home page and the Background page
profiling the terrorist organization.
"Munich Massacre 40 Years Later: Remembering Ground-breaking Coverage and Profound Impact on a Boy’s Jewish Identity."
Sherman Report. Ed. Jonathan Liss. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.
The actual footage of the live broadcast by Jim McKay on the ABC news station announcing the deaths of the 11 Israeli athletes.
"Olympics Flashback: Munich Massacre of 1972." NDTV Sports. Radhika & Prannoy Roy, 1988. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.
Images used from this website include helicopter images at the Furstenfeldbruck airport, an image of a security guard standing outside of
the Olympic village while the hostage crisis was going on, and headshots of the each of the 11 Israeli athletes killed.
"Olympic Village, Munich." Heinle, Wischer und Partner. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014.
This image of the Olympic Village was used on The Olympic Village page to show the layout of the apartments were the Israeli
athletes were housed.
"Olympic Village." Wikipedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olympic_Village,_Munich>.
This website was used for an overview image of the Olympic Village as seen from the Olympic Tower.
Interview with Avraham Melamed, Personal Interview 23 Mar., 2014
Member of the 1972 Israeli Olympic team who survived the terrorist attack in Munich. Avraham, who likes to be called by the nickname,
Bey, currently lives in New York. He coached the swim team at UMass Amherst for several years and although he now owns his own
computer company, Bey still continues his passion for swimming at age 70. Avraham was interviewed via phone call and gave insight to his
experience of the events surrounding the 1972 Munich Olympics.
"The Arab-Israeli War of 1948." U.S. Department of State: Office of the Historian. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
This website was used as background material because it explains the reasons for the conflicts between the Palestinians and the Jews
including how the state of Israel was born in 1948 and why the Palestinian Arabs refused to recognize the right of Israel to exist.
“Black September.” Terrorism Knowledge Base. Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security, 2010. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.
This website contained information on the Black September terrorist group that was used to profile this terrorist group and its members.
This information provided insight as to why the organization was founded and why it targeted the Israeli athletes at the Munich games.
Farrell, Courtney. Terror at the Munich Olympics. Ed. Chros McDougall and Paula Lewis. Illus. Nicole Brecke. Edina: ABDO, 2010. Print.
This book documented many of the early conflicts of the Jewish people, dating back to Roman times, the Spanish Inquisition and then the
Holocaust. It details the territorial disputes between the Arabs and the Israelis and how the Jewish people have been discriminated against
wherever they went leading to the formation of a Jewish state in 1948. The book continues with modern day terrorist attacks, focusing on
the Munich massacre, and other threats such as suicide bombings.
Gould, Martin. “Stanley Tate, Others Press for IOC to Remember Munich Massacre.” NewsMax. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.
This article was used to show the support that was prevalent by several countries to allow a moment of silence to honor the slain Israeli
athletes at the 2012 London Olympics to mark the 40th year anniversary of the Munich massacre. Excerpts from this article are included in
the Aftermath page under IOC response, Request.
Ghosh, Palash. “London Olympics: Organizers Reject Request to Honor 1972 Munich Massacre Victims.”
International Business Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.
This article revealed the International Olympic Committee’s viewpoint in honoring the slain Israeli athletes at the London 2012 Olympic
games, which marked the 40th anniversary of the Munich massacre. In researching how the IOC responded, portions of this article which
was published in an international newspaper, show that the IOC rejected a request to have a moment of silence at the London games,
even though support around the world was evident. Excerpts from this article are included in the Aftermath page under IOC response,
Hockenos, Paul. "The Ghosts of Munich 1972 and the Birth of the Modern Olympics." The Nation. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
This article written during the 2012 London Olympics discusses the lax security procedures in place by Germany and how this led to the
hostage crisis as well as how this tragedy has affected future Olympic games. Only the portion relating to security surrounding the Olympic
Village was used.
"Israel State Archives Reveal: The Secret Protocols of Munich Olympics Massacre." Haaretz. Ed. Roni Arie. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014.
This website gives insight into the thought process of officials in Israeli government at the time and immediately following the Munich
massacre as documents become declassified 40 years later. It also gave a layout of the Furstenfeldbruck airport where the terrorists were
ambushed and the remaining hostages were killed. This information was used in the Aftermath section of the website.
Kershner, Isabel. “From Israel’s Archives, Papers on Munich Killings.” The New York Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Mar. 2014.
This website contained information about newly released classified documents that show how insensitive Germany was to the tragedy that
occurred against Jewish people within the border of their country. A short excerpt is included in the Released Archives page under
Large, David Clay. Munich 1972: Tragedy, Terror, and Triumph at the Olympic Games. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2012. Print.
The book gave insight to why Munich was selected as the location for the 1972 Olympics and offered specific details about the Opening
Ceremony. I used this information on the Opening Ceremony and IOC Response pages.
"The Munich 11." Munich11.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2014. <http://www.munich11.org/?page_id=8>.
This website contained a page of specific information for each of the eleven fallen members of the Israeli team. This information was used
to add information such as age, sport participating in, birthplace and other pertinent details for each of the 11 athletes profiled on the Israeli
team page. Also on this website was the last photo of the Israeli team taken with the actors after the “Fiddler on the Roof” performance
they attended the night before they were attacked by the Black September terrorists.
“Munich 11 Timeline: The Minutes behind the Worst Tragedy in Olympic History (VIDEO).” Jspace. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2014.
This website contains a great detailed timeline:
It starts in 1966 and goes through several months after the Olympics, it describes arrival of terrorists, and actions of them before it
happened, and it tells about the hijacking of a plane to release the three captured terrorists. The website also has several good images.
"Munich 1972." Olympic.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Feb. 2014. <http://www.olympic.org/munich-1972-summer-olympics>.
This website contained information about the role of the International Olympic Committee and the process for selecting a hosting nation,
including the Olympic Charter which are the rules under which the Olympic Games are to be played. The Charter unequivocally
states that peace and unity not violence and discrimination are to be the guiding forces behind the games. The Charter was included on
this website to demonstrate the purpose of the games. The website also contained a fact sheet outlining the roles and responsibilities of
the IOC during the Olympic Games, although in all 5 pages, I could not find the word “security” in any paragraph leaving me to believe that
the IOC leaves that to the host country once it determines that the city that has been selected meets the rigorous requirements for a safe,
Reeve, Simon. "Olympic Massacre: Munich - The Real Story." The Independent. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2014.
This website has excerpts from a British newspaper, The Independent, published on February 19, 2014 detailing the Israeli response to
the Munich Massacre. The secret operation was known as “Wrath of God”. This article was written by Simon Reeve, the author of 'One
Day in September', the full story of the 1972 Munich Olympics massacre. This information was included in the Israeli Response page
under Aftermath on my website.
Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Munich Massacre." About.com. N.p., 1996. Web. 6 Feb. 2014.
This website contained information about many of the Israeli team members who had family killed in the Holocaust or were survivors
themselves. It explained why they were so were nervous about the games being held in Munich and the location of their apartments at 31
Connollystrasse inside the Olympic village. Some specific details were used in the Security section of the website under the heading What
Tobin, Jonathan S. "1972 Munich Massacre." Commentary. AJC, 1945. Web. 20 Feb. 2014.
This article was written after the 2012 Summer Games in London which marked the 40th anniversary of the Munich massacre and shows
how the IOC did not commemorate the occasion in any way but how an American gymnast who won gold on floor exercise, did pay tribute
to their memory. This lack of respect by an international organization shows that prejudice against the Israeli people continues to exist.
Excerpts from this article were used in the IOC Response page of the website.
"The Yom Kippur War: Background & Overview." Jewish Virtual Library. N.p., 1993. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
This website shows how the conflicts between the Arab nations and Israel were still at an all time high just one year after the Munich
Massacre. The Yom Kippur War was mostly between Egypt and Israel but other Arab nations, like Syria actively attacked Israel and many
other Arab state sent troops, weapons and financial assistance to aid in the fight against Israel. This war shows how there is a continuing
anti-Israel sentiment in the Middle East. This website contains map of Israel shows how the country was under attack in 1973 during the
Yom Kippur War. The Six Day War, another major conflict between the Israelis and their Arab neighbors, shows more hostility brewing in
the Middle East and that fact that Israel defeated its enemies, made the anti-Jewish sentiment even more evident about Palestinians. This
information was used in the Background pages under Israeli Conflicts.
"Flags." Otl Aicher and the 1972 Munich Olympics - Flags. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
Two images were used from this website. The first is of an Olympic flag with rings, and the second image is of an Opening Ceremony
ticket stub for the Munich, Germany games in 1972. These images were used on the IOC page and Opening Ceremony page respectively.
"German Flag." German Flag. N.p., 2008. Web. 21 Feb. 2014. <http://www.german-flag.org/>.
This image of a German flag blowing in the wind was used to on the Background page where the
past conflicts between Germany and the Jewish people are highlighted.
Jones, Russ. "Unlikely Coalition Arising in Israel." National Security. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Feb. 2014.
This image of an Israeli flag blowing in the wind was used on the Background page to highlight past Israeli conflicts with it’s neighboring
Arab nations. The reason for documenting these conflicts is to show how the Israeli people have been in constant conflict since the
founding of the State of Israel and why they were targeted by a radical terrorist group.