The tragedy that occurred during the 1972 Olympics in Munich, Germany stunned the world. The Munich Massacre, as it became known, was a direct result of Israeli athletes being denied their right to participate safely in the Olympic games. This violation can be attributed to both the International Olympic Committee and the country of Germany, the hosting nation, because both were responsible for establishing a safe and secure environment for all athletes. The Germans, wanting a clean slate after the pre-World War II 1936 propagandized Olympics in Berlin, Germany, advertised the Munich Olympics as relaxed, fun-loving, and carefree. The well-orchestrated act of terrorism by the militant group Black September resulted in the loss of 11 Israeli athletes. The lack of adequate protection of these innocent lives created a crisis that forever changed the security measures at future Olympic games.